GIS software development, GIS database design, Spatial data analysis, GIS consulting

2D/3D digital mapping, Indoor mapping, Cartography vectorization, Web map development

LiDAR data processing and conversion, Georectification and georeferencing, Vectorization and digitization, Data integration

Data capture and verification, Spatial data analysis, Cartography and mapping consulting, GIS web & app consulting

Floor plans digitalization, Indoor navigation, Building Information Model (BIM)

Data acquisition and digitization, Data conversion, Data cleansing and quality audit, Geospatial modeling and analysis

Home » Blog » Spatial Data Analysis: What is it & Its Role in GIS

Spatial Data Analysis: What is it & Its Role in GIS

September 4, 2023 Guides Author: Volodymyr Ovramenko Reading Time: 9 minutes
Reading Time: 9 minutes

In today’s world, spatial data analysis helps solve many complex problems related to location. Through analysis, you can conduct thorough research and understand the data specifically from the geographical side. Also, users can use geospatial analysis to assess trends, make the right decisions and assess risks. Thanks to this technology, it is possible not only to estimate the location but also to study several characteristics, which will help make an accurate forecast in the future.

When using spatial analysis, you can use new information at the same time as that which exists in many sources. Thanks to a set of spatial operators, you can answer complex questions and use all the tools that will help you do it efficiently. You can study and analyze the land cover layers to correctly calculate the site’s readiness for development or another type of activity.

In addition, you can follow the changes that occur over time using images. In short, all these tools help you to analyze the location carefully and make the right decision. To get acquainted in detail with all the nuances of spatial analysis, we recommend that you read this article to the end.

What Is Spatial Data Analysis?

Geospatial analysis is the process of modeling and exploring GIS data. It allows you to receive, interpret and analyze the results, as a result of which you can make the right decision. The information that you receive is automatically processed and produces a result by your request. Visualization is the easiest way because it allows you to conduct analytics and use tools that will help you generate actionable ideas.

Examples of spatial analysis can be setting up bus routes, measuring the distance between destinations, correlations between objects, tracking traffic, and learning location in real time. Geospatial analysis is a rather important process and consists of several main stages. These are: setting a goal, preparing and collecting data, choosing the necessary tools and methodology, and researching and evaluating the results.

First of all, you need to decide on the goal that you are pursuing, then choose one of the spatial analysis methods. However, having decided what you want to get, you can easily choose the appropriate method to cover all your needs. After you have chosen the method, the stage of location analysis follows, and after that, the processing and interpretation of the data are obtained. The final stage is the evaluation of the results, and this includes information about whether you managed to achieve your goal or not.

spatial data analysis

Importance of Spatial Analysis

The importance of spatial analysis in GIS manifests itself in many factors because, by its very nature, spatial analysis involves much more than just displaying the necessary objects. Geospatial information is collected from many sources that can be used for different purposes and interpretations. An excellent example is traffic in a city, where spatial analysis helps to manage facilities and take the necessary actions to improve city roads.

In addition, this technology allows users to monitor the spread of diseases on different continents and help make timely efforts that will help avoid a pandemic. For example, spatial data is often used to map disease removal and vaccination strategies, as happened with COVID-19. At the moment, spatial analytics plays a rather important role in the daily life of every person and has become an integral part of a comfortable life.

We deal with the use of spatial analysis daily, from simply ordering a taxi to tracking Internet parcels and using a navigator. Even though satellite imagery has been around for many years, with the advent of artificial intelligence and various software, spatial analysis has become simpler and more accessible, and enterprises have been able to significantly increase revenue and make the right business decisions.

Types Of Spatial Analysis

There are six main types of spatial analysis in GIS. They are queries and discussions, data measurement, transformation, description, optimization, and validation. Our specialists have prepared a brief description of each of the types, which you can find below:

  • The first type involves using GIS to answer simple questions that users ask. It does not change or generate new data. This type is fundamental and simplest.
  • Data is measured through prime numbers that explain the meaning of the data used. This type uses standard object characteristics such as area, shape, and length. In addition, with the help of measurement, you can study the relationship between the required objects and study their direction.
  • Transformation is a basic geospatial analytics procedure that compares or combines entire datasets to create new ones. This process converts vector data analysis in GIS to raster data and vice versa while using mathematical, logical, or geometric principles.
  • The description of the summaries helps users to tell the purpose of the data collection. This type includes standard deviations, means, and other equivalents that are used for data analysis.
  • Optimization helps to find the best position of objects, which is justified by predetermined criteria. This type of spatial analysis is most commonly used for parcel delivery, market analysis, and more.
  • The check is done to summarize all the results obtained, with the help of which users can assess the structure and consider further developments. Hypothesis testing is at the heart of geospatial analysis and should be applied to all geographic data.

Benefits of Spatial Analysis

Many users have been using spatial data analysis for a long time to solve important questions and make the right decisions. However, for the majority, this technology is still something complex, unknown, and incomprehensible. Below we list a few of the benefits that make data analysis more popular every year:

  • Spatial analysis helps businesses achieve their goals and get the job done on time.
  • With geospatial analytics, you can improve your results and make them incredible.
  • Spatial data analysis helps reduce costs and increase business revenue. It also helps reduce the cost of unnecessary materials and practices.
  • Significant increase in machine productivity.
  • Provides income for various industries and helps to make the work process more efficient.
  • In some way, geospatial analytics protects the health and safety of enterprise employees and the public.
  • With the help of spatial data analysis, you can easily comply with regulatory requirements.
  • Spatial analysis improves customer experience and service.
  • Businesses that use geospatial data analysis have many more satisfied customers than those that still use standard charts and graphs.
  • Using data analysis, you will become competitive and get a large number of advantages over other enterprises.

spatial analysis for urban planning

How Does Spatial Analysis Work?

It’s no secret that spatial analysis is one of the main parts of GIS. Most often, it is used to study the location and forecast weather for one of the areas. With this technology, users can quickly solve problems and make the right decisions related to geographic attributes. It’s time to take a closer look at how spatial analysis works:

  1. The first step is data collection. This step is the most important and involves collecting data from many sources. Such sources can be airborne systems or devices for remote detection of light and range. The data you get with these methods is used to render the maps.
  2. The next step is to analyze the data. The second stage involves analyzing the collected data to obtain the expected results. The objects of analysis can be residential areas, transport systems, playgrounds, and much more. In addition, you can use the necessary tools to create visualizations and highlight the necessary objects with different colors, annotations, or shapes.
  3. The data presentation stage follows the analysis. This step often takes a lot of time because here, you need to highlight all the main elements that help reveal the result.

Spatial Analysis Use Cases

The modern world is completely driven by innovative technologies that depend, to some extent, on spatial analytics. In addition, many private enterprises and government agencies use location data to complete tasks and improve the population’s quality of life. At the moment, there are several options for using spatial analysis:

  1. Planning and development of cities. Geospatial analysis plays an important role in city planning and future activities. This technology helps to identify climate changes that may affect life in the city.
  2. Healthcare. Spatial analysis helps manage public health in various areas. Many government organizations use virus distribution maps and satellite data to determine how fast the disease is spreading and how to prevent it.
  3. Agriculture. Spatial data analysis allows you to predict the presence of a crop, track it, analyze the soil, and much more. Harvest can be monitored using GIS data collection by sounding, which can be remote.

ndvi index impact

What Is Spatial Data Analysis In GIS?

For many users, the question of what is spatial data in geography is too confusing. This technology is fundamental to collecting data that helps create map visualizations. Spatial analytics is a great help in solving complex problems related to the location of objects, but do not forget that in the process of analysis, you will have to explore, study and understand the data from a geographical point of view.

Spatial analysis in GIS allows us to study the characteristics of places and consider the relationship between them. Users using geographic data can forget about old problems thanks to innovative technologies that greatly simplify the work with data. Using spatial analysis, you can combine various information and make the right decisions.

Spatial Analysis Techniques

There are several spatial analyses in GIS methods, and they are quite diverse. Such analyzes must be created according to the grouping method and the number of classes to be created. Below you can see the five main methods for grouping data:

  • Equal classes
  • Natural intervals
  • Equal intervals
  • Equal areas
  • Standard deviations

By choosing one of the above methods, you can perform a qualitative data analysis and achieve a successful result. In case you encounter difficulties during the spatial analysis, we recommend you to contact our specialists. They will be happy to answer all your questions and help you solve the problem.

Spatial Data Analysis Process

Many users who have encountered this technology are interested in how to properly conduct spatial data analysis. Our experts have written a guide to save you from unnecessary difficulties. You can familiarize yourself with it by reading this section to the end:

  • Formulate goals and questions. Decide for what purpose you will conduct a spatial analysis.
  • Explore the data. Look at the completeness, quality, and size of the data.
  • Create a blueprint for the model. Develop your action plan and break the problem into several parts.
  • Study the results. The next step is to evaluate the results and determine if they are in line with your goals.
  • Continue with the analysis process. Remember that geospatial analytics is an ongoing process that must be carried out until all issues are resolved.
  • Show your results. Tell the public about the spatial analysis results and become useful to them.
  • Make a final decision. The final step is decision-making, assisted by GIS and geospatial analysis. As a result, you should get what you set as the goal at the beginning.

How to Perform Spatial Analysis

To perform spatial analysis, it is necessary for the following sequence:

  • Problem designation.
  • Preliminary data processing and selection of a more appropriate analysis method.
  • Analytics of the received information.
  • Studying the results.
  • Data quality assessment.

As you can see, you do not need to perform many complex actions to perform spatial analysis. It is important to act clearly and correctly; with guidance from Mappitall specialists, you will surely be able to achieve better results and achieve your goals.


Why use spatial analysis in GIS?

Spatial data analysis helps to solve problems related to the location of objects, explore data, study the relationship between them, evaluate various trends, make high-quality forecasts, and make the right decisions. Geospatial analysis is the best assistant for many enterprises that build cities, roads, and more. Every day we encounter spatial data using a navigator, calling a taxi, or using a food delivery service.

How to do spatial analysis in GIS?

To do spatial analysis in GIS, you need to go through five main stages:

  • Setting a goal.
  • Collecting data.
  • Choosing the necessary tools and methodology.
  • Researching and evaluating the results.

In the end, you should get those results that cover the needs of your goal.

What spatial analysis technique is used for google maps?

Google Maps uses basic spatial analysis to help show the location of objects in real time. In addition, thanks to data visualization, you can open Google Maps and see the required object not only on the map but also in the natural environment in the form of previously taken images.

How can GIS spatial analysis be applied to emergency management?

Users can use vector data analysis in GIS to create geographic maps that show important features such as escape routes from a city, a hospital, or a shelter. In addition, spatial analysis makes it possible to identify the risks of natural disasters and diseases and helps to prevent them.


In the modern world, spatial analytics has become an integral part of not only various industries but also the daily life of every person. Every day we encounter geospatial data when ordering a taxi to our homes or ordering food delivery. This technology helps improve healthcare in various fields, banking, agriculture, and even astronomy. Many businesses use spatial analysis to analyze a location and determine how well it would be to build features in that location. Innovative technologies are moving forward, so do not think it is difficult or impossible. Our Mappitall service can handle any task if you ask for it!

Spatial Data Analysis with Mappitall 

The Mappitall service daily helps many users to conduct spatial analysis that can give a positive result. Our experienced specialists are ready to take on work of any nature, only for you to achieve your goal. We will help you deal with geospatial analytics and tell you how to do it ri

GIS Services Company - 17

    Just contact us:

    Tell us about your project goals, and we’ll get back to you in no time!

    17+ GIS Applications & Uses in Various Industries - 8
    CEO and Founder at Mappitall

    An entrepreneur and business leader, Volodymyr began his career in the late 1990s at the Laboratory of Geoinformation Systems of the Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics. 

    In 2007 Volodymyr created Mappitall, and grew the company from a small agency providing GIS solutions to one of the industry leaders in Ukraine, a reliable technology partner for many international enterprises and top-level organizations around the world.

    As CEO, Volodymyr is the driving force behind the company's strategy and business development, actively working on the development of Mappitall's business model, attracting more and more talented people who share his vision and mission.